|For Standard||PRODML v2.0|
Within the production management domain, there is somewhat of a hierarchy of requirements. For example: it is hard to report surveillance without a description of what is being measured, and it is hard to optimize something without both a description of what is being optimized, and the measurements which are input to the optimization.
The optimization segment has low scores for its sub-domains simply because the foundational data models are not yet sufficiently developed to support major optimization workflows. For example: well simulation (commonly known as nodal analysis) needs a model covering the following elements:
- The physical hardware in the well—available through the Completion segment since 2014.
- The paths by which fluid flows through the hardware—no model developed.
- The properties of the connection to the reservoir—available through the Completion segment.
- The flow properties of the near-wellbore reservoir and of the connection to the reservoir—no model developed for well simulation, though gridded properties available in RESQML.
- The fluid properties flowing in the system—available from v2.0 in 2016.
- The control of flow—chokes, artificial lift, etc.—no model developed.
- The reporting of well simulation results (flowrates, sensitivities, flowing gradients, etc.)—no model developed.
Much of the input data can be modelled using other segments of PRODML and other Energistics domain standards, but the specific data needed to run a simulation using this base physical data has not yet been modelled.
Therefore, in general, the coverage of optimization is low, being limited to partial solutions. The segment is a good opportunity for future development.